In 1900, Freud published the book The Interpretation of Dreams in which he outlined his hypothesis that the primary purpose of dreams was to provide individuals with wish fulfillment, allowing them to work through some of their repressed issues in a situation free from consciousness and the constraints of reality (Sigmund Freud Biography, n.d.).. According to the Jewish father of psychoanalysis, the Judeo-Christian views on God stem from the primitive psychological states of man According to Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Theory, children develop as a consequence of the ways through which the Ego negotiates a compromise among:
While Freud saw the symbolic as being indicative of a person’s unconscious mind, particularly in dreams, Lacan theorized that “the real” is actually the most foundational level of the human mind. According to Lacan, we exist in “the real” and experience anxiety because we cannot control it. Brilliant Sigmund Freud Memes and Cartoons
The first of these activities, condensation, operates through the fusion of several different elements into one. As such, it exemplifies one of the key operations of psychic life, which Freud called overdetermination. No direct correspondence between a simple manifest content and its multidimensional latent counterpart can be assumed. The second activity of the dreamwork, displacement, refers to the decentring of dream thoughts, so that the most urgent wish is often obliquely or marginally represented on the manifest level. Displacement also means the associative substitution of one signifier in the dream for another, say, the king for one’s father. The third activity Freud called representation, by which he meant the transformation of thoughts into images. Decoding a dream thus means translating such visual representations back into intersubjectively available language through free association. The final function of the dreamwork is secondary revision, which provides some order and intelligibility to the dream by supplementing its content with narrative coherence. The process of dream interpretation thus reverses the direction of the dreamwork, moving from the level of the conscious recounting of the dream through the preconscious back beyond censorship into the unconscious itself.At a less theoretical, but no less critical level, it has been alleged that Freud did make a genuine discovery which he was initially prepared to reveal to the world. However, the response he encountered was so ferociously hostile that he masked his findings and offered his theory of the unconscious in its place (see Masson, J. The Assault on Truth). What he discovered, it has been suggested, was the extreme prevalence of child sexual abuse, particularly of young girls (the vast majority of hysterics are women), even in respectable nineteenth century Vienna. He did in fact offer an early seduction theory of neuroses, which met with fierce animosity, and which he quickly withdrew and replaced with the theory of the unconscious. As one contemporary Freudian commentator explains it, Freud’s change of mind on this issue came about as follows:What do you think about psychoanalysis and the theory behind it? Does any of it ring true for you personally? Have you ever tried psychoanalysis, as a patient or as an analyst? Psychology students around the world affectionately refer to him as 'Grandfather Freud'. Coco Chanel dubbed him the first male feminist — for it was Freud in particular who became a theorist of..
Sigmund Freud 1856 da, Moravya da doğdu. Daha çocukken ailesi Viyana'ya göçetti. Ve Freud yaşantısının çoğunu bu şehirde geçirdi. 1873'te, Viyana üniversitesine girdi, tıp öğrenimine başladı . No matter the content of the dreams, Freud's theories of dream interpretation take time to explore, catalog and analyze
The third phase occurs between the fourth and sixth life year of a child. Here, the child gets to know himself and his body. This could be expressed in making corny jokes. Parents’ response to this behaviour greatly influences the outcome of the fixation on this. dream theorists. Tweet. Sigmund Freud. Considered the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) revolutionizes the study of dreams with his work The Interpretation Of Dreams Freud’s ideas about dreams were game-changing. Before Freud, dreams were considered insignificant and insensible ramblings of the mind at rest. His book provoked a new level of interest in dreams, an interest that continues to this day. Say the name Freud and almost everyone will know who he is and the fundamental part he played in the creation of psychotherapy. That is, they will know the official image projected of him
To engage in psychoanalytic treatment, the analyst must see the client objectively and understand the transference happening in the client and in their own experience.In 1885-86, Freud spent the greater part of a year in Paris, where he was deeply impressed by the work of the French neurologist Jean Charcot who was at that time using hypnotism to treat hysteria and other abnormal mental conditions. When he returned to Vienna, Freud experimented with hypnosis but found that its beneficial effects did not last. At this point he decided to adopt instead a method suggested by the work of an older Viennese colleague and friend, Josef Breuer, who had discovered that when he encouraged a hysterical patient to talk uninhibitedly about the earliest occurrences of the symptoms, they sometimes gradually abated. Working with Breuer, Freud formulated and developed the idea that many neuroses (phobias, hysterical paralysis and pains, some forms of paranoia, and so forth) had their origins in deeply traumatic experiences which had occurred in the patient’s past but which were now forgotten—hidden from consciousness. The treatment was to enable the patient to recall the experience to consciousness, to confront it in a deep way both intellectually and emotionally, and in thus discharging it, to remove the underlying psychological causes of the neurotic symptoms. This technique, and the theory from which it is derived, was given its classical expression in Studies in Hysteria, jointly published by Freud and Breuer in 1895. Controversies and Criticisms on Freud's Theories. Now, Freud developed this. This is the Freudian theory in broad outline. He extended it and developed it into a theory of psychosexual development
It frequently occurs in treatment in the form of transference onto the therapist, in which the client applies their feelings and expectations toward another person onto the therapist.Although you will need to visit a psychoanalyst if you want a more valid and reliable diagnosis, this test can give you an idea of where your personality lies. However, please note that you will need to make an account with Psychologist World to obtain your results.
Sigmund Freud Biographic Description of Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 in 2014 Abstract In this research paper, I explained what Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory of.. It’s very likely you’ve heard of the influential but controversial founder of psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud.During the fourth phase, from the sixth year of life until puberty, the libido is suppressed and kept dormant. Usually, children attend school during this phase and they start to worry about making friends, finding hobbies and developing other interests. The super ego continues to develop during this phase, while the id is suppressed.For a fascinating look at how art has been influenced by psychoanalysis, check out Laurie Schneider Adams’s book Art and Psychoanalysis. For a briefer look at the interaction between the two, you can find a good, concise overview through Ivy Roberts’s online lesson titled “The Impact of Psychoanalysis on Art.”This goal is accomplished through talking to another person about the big questions in life, the things that matter, and diving into the complexities that lie beneath the simple-seeming surface.
The image above offers a context of this “iceberg” model wherein much of our mind exists in the realm of the unconscious impulses and drives. Freud IDSEM UG 1839, 4 units This course aims to give students an understanding of the fundamental concepts, vocabulary and theories of Sigmund Freud, the..
The Sigmund Freud Theory, or Freudian theory, is a theory about personality organisation, the dynamics between the various stages of personality development Spielberger, C. D. (2010). State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. John Wiley and Sons.In what many commentators consider his master work, Die Traumdeutung (published in 1899, but given the date of the dawning century to emphasize its epochal character; The Interpretation of Dreams), he presented his findings. Interspersing evidence from his own dreams with evidence from those recounted in his clinical practice, Freud contended that dreams played a fundamental role in the psychic economy. The mind’s energy—which Freud called libido and identified principally, but not exclusively, with the sexual drive—was a fluid and malleable force capable of excessive and disturbing power. Needing to be discharged to ensure pleasure and prevent pain, it sought whatever outlet it might find. If denied the gratification provided by direct motor action, libidinal energy could seek its release through mental channels. Or, in the language of The Interpretation of Dreams, a wish can be satisfied by an imaginary wish fulfillment. All dreams, Freud claimed, even nightmares manifesting apparent anxiety, are the fulfillment of such wishes.
Sigmund Freud, the inventor of psychoanalysis, appreciated the many ways in which our minds are troubled and anxious. It isn't us in particular: it's the.. PersonRobert HookeRobert Hooke is known as a "Renaissance Man" of 17th century England for his work in the sciences, which covered areas such as astronomy, physics and biology. Psychosexual Theory. Freud described children as going through multiple stages of sexual development. According to him, these stages are labeled as Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital MORE STORIES FROM BIOGRAPHYPersonErwin SchrödingerErwin Schrödinger was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist whose groundbreaking wave equation changed the face of quantum theory.
Freud has brought lot of controversies in the field of modern psychology and literary trend through his theory Oedipus complex. Contrariwise, in some other assessor's notions his concept of Oedipus.. Sigmund Freud's Theory of Personality. Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality argued that human behavior was the result of the interaction of three component parts of the mind: the id, ego.. Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality According to Sigmund Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the Id, the Ego and
Freud and Psychoanalytical Theory. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Austrian Psychologist Founded the clinical practice of psychoanalysis to treat psychopathology in patients through dialogue Investigated.. In his well developed theory named Psychoanalytic Criticism, Sigmund Freud stated that there are three parts to our mind. Freud published two books that introduced the public to the unconscious mind
Sigmund Freud was a physician who proposed the most controversial theory of psychosexual development which points to personality development over the course of childhood How to cite this article: Janse, B. (2018). Sigmund Freud Theory. Retrieved [insert date] from ToolsHero: https://www.toolshero.com/psychology/sigmund-freud-theory/ Важнейшие концепции психоанализа. Структура психики по Зигмунду Фрейду. Ид, Эго, Супер Эго. Исток психологических проблем с точки зрения психоанализа PersonB.F. SkinnerAmerican psychologist B.F. Skinner is best known for developing the theory of behaviorism, and for his utopian novel Walden Two (1948).
Is Freudian psychology supported by evidence? Freud's theory is good at explaining but not at predicting behavior (which is one of the goals of science) Given the relationship between the two theories, there are several core ideas and assumptions that they have in common, including: Freud centre front. From the early 1900s, Freud's new theories became increasingly influential - attracting a range of followers, who were interested in the new theory of psychology BIOGRAPHY NEWSLETTERSubscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives.Given these many valid criticisms of psychoanalytic theory, it is probably wise to approach Freud and his theories with a grain of salt. Although his work formed the basis for modern psychology, that basis was lacking in empiricism and falsifiability, and his students and followers bore the larger burden of providing evidence to back the resulting psychological theories.
“contemporary view of countertransference is that of a complex formation codetermined by the analyst’s reaction to the patient’s transference, to the reality of the patient’s life, to the reality of the analyst’s life, and to specific transference dispositions activated in the analyst as a reaction to the patient and his/her material” (2016).As a counseling psychologist psychoanalytic theory by Sigmund Freud is my best theory k use in most cases. This theory also implies that dreams are not independently functional but rather a coproduct of the By contrast, Freud regarded dreams as a royal road to the unconscious; dream interpretation has.. Despite many reincarnations, Freud's theory is criticized by many (e.g. for its perceived sexism) and it Freud was a one of a kind thinker. There can be little question that he was influenced by earlier.. Freud is at least partly responsible - and his followers certainly more so - for the idea that babies There are many educational implications of this theory, but I will limit myself to the earliest and..
Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychiatry. Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind.. Freud generated his theory from in-depth case studies which provided him with very rich and His theory was built from valid data and it focused on the dreams and problems of each individual
The standard edition of Freud's seminal theory of the psychology of sexuality These three essays Freud first wrote Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality in 1905 and spent the next two decades.. Freud and Breuer published their theories and findings in this book, which discussed their theories that by confronting trauma from a patient’s past, a psychoanalyst can help a patient rid him or herself of neuroses.
Countertransference analysis can be generally understood as the analyst’s attempts to analyze their own reactions to the client, whatever form they take. One of Freud's most famous theories is that of his views on the human personality, and Sigmund Freud proposed that every individual's personality is the product of struggle among three interacting.. This case sparked Freud’s interest in the unconscious mind and spurred the development of some of his most influential ideas.
Anna Freud was born in 1895 in Vienna, the sixth and youngest child of Sigmund Freud and Martha In her 1965 publication 'Normality and Pathology in Childhood', she describes a coherent theory.. Freud’s work was continued, although in altered form, by his student Carl Jung, whose particular brand of psychology is known as analytical psychology. Jung’s work formed the basis for most modern psychological theories and concepts.The focus at this Freud psychosexual stage is on the sexual urges that are reawakened and are directed toward opposite sex peers, with genitals as the primary source of pleasure. Individuals who completed the earlier stages successfully become well-adjusted, caring and secure individuals.Freud hypothesized that an individual must successfully complete each stage to become a psychologically healthy adult with a fully formed ego and superego. Otherwise, individuals may become stuck or “fixated” in a particular stage, causing emotional and behavioral problems in adulthood (McLeod, 2013).
In 1900, after a serious period of self-analysis, Freud published what has become his most important and defining work, which posits that dream analysis can give insight into the workings of the unconscious mind. The book was and remains controversial, producing such topics as the Oedipus complex. Many psychologists say this work gave birth to modern scientific thinking about the mind and the fields of psychology, psychiatry and psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud established a collection of theories which have shaped the root of the The first is Freud's theory of love as aim-inhibited libido. Aim-inhibited libido can be defined as libido where the..
The impact of psychoanalysis on movies is perhaps even more salient than its impact on art and literature. The list below is just a sampling of the many films inspired and/or influenced by psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud's theory is quite complex and although his writings on psychosexual development Freud called this part the Ego. The ego is based on the reality principle. The ego understands that..
These elements work together to create complex human behaviours. These don’t just provide a unique, individual contribution to personality, but interact and influence each other in way that exerts a powerful impact on each individual. The three elements take centre stage more strongly during certain moments in life compared to others. Freudian theory centers around ideas and works of famed psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Learn more about unconscious and psychosexual development
There are three different types of anxiety. They can only be produced by the ego. The id and the superego can be involved in them however. The dependence that the ego has on the id can result in neurotic anxiety, which is a fear of unknown danger. The feeling of neurotic anxiety resides in the ego, but it originally comes from impulses in the id. Moral anxiety comes largely from the conflict between the ego and the superego. It is represented by a conflict of actual needs and what the superego dictates. An example of this could include a child, who has recently developed a superego, feeling sexual temptations and believing them to be morally wrong at the same time. The third type of anxiety described by Freud is realistic anxiety. It is an unpleasant feeling that could involve a real possible danger. This type of anxiety is similar to fear (Feist & Feist, 2009).It should be emphasized here that Freud’s genius is not (generally) in doubt, but the precise nature of his achievement is still the source of much debate. The supporters and followers of Freud (and Jung and Adler) are noted for the zeal and enthusiasm with which they espouse the doctrines of the master, to the point where many of the detractors of the movement see it as a kind of secular religion, requiring as it does an initiation process in which the aspiring psychoanalyst must himself first be analyzed. In this way, it is often alleged, the unquestioning acceptance of a set of ideological principles becomes a necessary precondition for acceptance into the movement—as with most religious groupings. In reply, the exponents and supporters of psychoanalysis frequently analyze the motivations of their critics in terms of the very theory which those critics reject. And so the debate goes on. Philosophy: Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis: Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) Explains some Quotations from Sigmund Freud Theories: On the Conflicts between Cultural and Biological Evolution..
One of the final key points to Freud’s idea of psychoanalysis involves slips of the tongue. Freud believed that these Freudian slips, or parapraxes, were not at all coincidences. Freud believed that while these misuses of words, even though the individual thought they had no meaning, delved into the unconscious and reflected inner desires of the patient (Feist & Feist, 2009).Although a highly original thinker, Freud was also deeply influenced by a number of diverse factors which overlapped and interconnected with each other to shape the development of his thought. As indicated above, both Charcot and Breuer had a direct and immediate impact upon him, but some of the other factors, though no less important than these, were of a rather different nature. First of all, Freud himself was very much a Freudian—his father had two sons by a previous marriage, Emmanuel and Philip, and the young Freud often played with Philip’s son John, who was his own age. Freud’s self-analysis, which forms the core of his masterpiece The Interpretation of Dreams, originated in the emotional crisis which he suffered on the death of his father and the series of dreams to which this gave rise. This analysis revealed to him that the love and admiration which he had felt for his father were mixed with very contrasting feelings of shame and hate (such a mixed attitude he termed ambivalence). Particularly revealing was his discovery that he had often fantasized as a youth that his half-brother Philip (who was of an age with his mother) was really his father, and certain other signs convinced him of the deep underlying meaning of this fantasy—that he had wished his real father dead because he was his rival for his mother’s affections. This was to become the personal (though by no means exclusive) basis for his theory of the Oedipus complex.Freud was born in Austria and spent most of his childhood and adult life in Vienna (Sigmund Freud Biography, 2017). He entered medical school and trained to become a neurologist, earning a medical degree in 1881.When the same person sees a beautiful car drive by, the ego mediates between the id and the super ego and decides to save up to buy the car rather than take it. If that means this person must save up for another ten years, that’s the sacrifice that must be made to fulfil the desire. The ego itself doesn’t have any realisation of right or wrong; it’s simply about the desire being fulfilled without the id or the ego itself suffering from this.
The postulate that there are such things as unconscious mental states at all is a direct function of Freud’s determinism, his reasoning here being simply that the principle of causality requires that such mental states should exist, for it is evident that there is frequently nothing in the conscious mind which can be said to cause neurotic or other behavior. An unconscious mental process or event, for Freud, is not one which merely happens to be out of consciousness at a given time, but is rather one which cannot, except through protracted psychoanalysis, be brought to the forefront of consciousness. The postulation of such unconscious mental states entails, of course, that the mind is not, and cannot be, either identified with consciousness, or an object of consciousness. To employ a much-used analogy, it is rather structurally akin to an iceberg, the bulk of it lying below the surface, exerting a dynamic and determining influence upon the part which is amenable to direct inspection—the conscious mind.An aggressive person knows, whether subconsciously or consciously, that hitting people for no reason isn’t a good idea. Exercising could be a means to convert these emotions into something constructive.
Darian Leader explains Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and the ideas that have followed Psychotherapy can be undertaken with a variety of length and duration combinations, from once a month to several times a week. On the other hand, psychoanalysis is almost always applied in an intensive manner, often requiring three to five sessions a week for several years (Lee, 2010).Secondly, and at a more general level, account must be taken of the contemporary scientific climate in which Freud lived and worked. In most respects, the towering scientific figure of nineteenth century science was Charles Darwin, who had published his revolutionary Origin of Species when Freud was four years old. The evolutionary doctrine radically altered the prevailing conception of man—whereas before, man had been seen as a being different in nature from the members of the animal kingdom by virtue of his possession of an immortal soul, he was now seen as being part of the natural order, different from non-human animals only in degree of structural complexity. This made it possible and plausible, for the first time, to treat man as an object of scientific investigation, and to conceive of the vast and varied range of human behavior, and the motivational causes from which it springs, as being amenable in principle to scientific explanation. Much of the creative work done in a whole variety of diverse scientific fields over the next century was to be inspired by, and derive sustenance from, this new world-view, which Freud with his enormous esteem for science, accepted implicitly.Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Positive Psychology Exercises for free. These science-based exercises will explore fundamental aspects of positive psychology including strengths, values and self-compassion and will give you the tools to enhance the wellbeing of your clients, students or employees.
Psychoanalysis has been around for more than 100 years and has generated plenty of debate—much of it heated. Unsurprisingly, given how long it has been practiced, there are many, many books available on the subject.Technical neutrality is sometimes considered indifference or disinterest in the client, but that is not the goal; rather, analysts aim to serve as a mirror for their clients, reflecting clients’ own characteristics, assumptions, and behaviors back at them to aid in their understanding of themselves. Theories. According to Freud, the unconscious is split between the id (instincts) and the superego Freud used techniques such as dream analysis and free association to tap into the unconscious
It does not follow that, if Freud’s theory is unscientific, or even false, it cannot provide us with a basis for the beneficial treatment of neurotic illness because the relationship between a theory’s truth or falsity and its utility-value is far from being an isomorphic one. The theory upon which the use of leeches to bleed patients in eighteenth century medicine was based was quite spurious, but patients did sometimes actually benefit from the treatment! And of course even a true theory might be badly applied, leading to negative consequences. One of the problems here is that it is difficult to specify what counts as a cure for a neurotic illness as distinct, say, from a mere alleviation of the symptoms. In general, however, the efficiency of a given method of treatment is usually clinically measured by means of a control group—the proportion of patients suffering from a given disorder who are cured by treatment X is measured by comparison with those cured by other treatments, or by no treatment at all. Such clinical tests as have been conducted indicate that the proportion of patients who have benefited from psychoanalytic treatment does not diverge significantly from the proportion who recover spontaneously or as a result of other forms of intervention in the control groups used. So, the question of the therapeutic effectiveness of psychoanalysis remains an open and controversial one.Once we learn a language, we move from the real to the symbolic order and are unable to move back to the real. The real and the symbolic are two of the three orders that live in tension with one another, the third being the imaginary order (Symbolic Order, 2002).With all of the theories and disciplines sporting the “psycho” prefix, it’s easy to get them confused.If you liked this article, then please subscribe to our Free Newsletter for the latest posts on Management models and methods. You can also find us on Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter and YouTube.PersonBenjamin FranklinBenjamin Franklin is best known as one of the Founding Fathers who never served as president but was a respected inventor, publisher, scientist and diplomat.
The first phase starts from birth and ends approximately after the first year. During this phase, the child tests everything with its mouth, the first part of the body that’s developed. When a child is unsuccessful during this phase and therefore becomes dissatisfied, Freud believes he’ll be characterised by pessimism, suspicion and sarcasm later in life. The person reduces feelings of fear or tensions by chewing the tops of pens or excessively chewing gum, for instance. Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalytic Theory.Freudian theory postulates that in this embryonic Freudian Psychoanalysis Explained. Freud's initial approach to therapy was to extract repressed.. Chessick, R. D. (2010). Returning to Freud. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis & Dynamic Psychiatry, 38(3), 413-440.
Sigmund Siggy Freud (1856-1939, b. Sigismund Schlomo Freud) was a 19th and 20th century physician and neurologist who is widely credited with (and criticized for) popularizing the concept of the unconscious—the idea that human beings are not always aware of their own motivations.. The techniques used in psychoanalysis differ from most other types of psychotherapy, demonstrated by the stereotypical image of psychoanalysis of the client reclining on a couch facing away from the therapist (or analyst) while discussing his or her past.
Fact CheckWe strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Humanistic theory, behavioristic theory, and psychodynamic theory are all considered a major Sigmund Freud, born Sigismund Schlomo Freud, was an Austrian neurologist who founded the.. Freud's theory implies that the super-ego is a symbolic internalization of the father figure, and cultural regulations. Neo-Freudian approaches added more stages (Erikson) and/or altered Freud's..
Freud's theory suggested that we have painful memories and other unwanted thoughts stored in Others developed theories that reflected their own spin on psychoanalysis but Freud's theory of.. Lacan drew heavily from his knowledge of linguistics and believed that language was a much more important piece of the developmental puzzle than Freud assumed.
Freud's Main Theories include Psychosexual Development, The Oedipus Complex, 'Id, Ego, Superego' and the Unconscious. Sigmund Freud and His Main Theories. Let us free associate for a second In fact, a psychoanalyst is often considered to be a type of psychotherapist, just one who specializes in psychoanalysis. With that in mind, every psychoanalyst is also a psychotherapist, but not every psychotherapist is a psychoanalyst.Freud proposed two different theories of anxiety and defense during his career. The first was proposed during the early years of his work, from around 1890 to 1900. The second theory would remain with him from 1920 until the end of his career. The greatest difference between the two theories deals with the relationship between anxiety and defense (Erwin, 2002). In the earlier theory, defense, which can be defined as repression or warding off, serves as a precondition for anxiety. After this repression takes place, the libido, or any other sexual strife could be expressed as anxiety. The theory states that repression causes anxiety (Erwin, 2002). The tables turn a bit with the formation of Freud’s second theory. In this theory anxiety, or the signal of anxiety, causes defense. Defense activity is a complete reversal of the sequence that was previously proposed. Anxiety is also no longer thought of as a discharge process (Erwin, 2002).Transference is the term for the unconscious repetition in the “here and now” of conflicts from the client’s past. Transference analysis refers to “the systematic analysis of the transference implications of the patient’s total verbal and nonverbal manifestations in the hours as well as the c patient’s direct and implicit communicative efforts to influence the analyst in a certain direction” (Kernberg, 2016).Resistance to treatment can also be understood in a more general, non-psychoanalytic manner. After all, resistance to treatment is not an uncommon occurrence.